Islamic medicine is considered as a comprehensive medical school with a long, glorious and global reputation. Some of the doctors of this school are famous all over the world and have rendered valuable services to the scientific world. Given the growing prevalence of cancer and the relative ineffectiveness of current drugs, there is a great demand for effective treatment approaches. To this end, the integration of traditional medicine with modern therapies is a promising option. This article refers to the methods of diagnosing and treating cancer from the perspective of five famous doctors before the Mongol invasion who used Islamic drugs, namely Razi, Akhavioni, Ahwazi, Ibn Sina and Jorjani. The ideas in question date back to the period between the eighth and fourteenth centuries.